a file system or filesystem is used to control how data is stored and retrieved.
Without a file system, information placed in a storage medium would be one large body of data with no way to tell where one piece of information stops and the next begins. By separating the data into pieces and giving each piece a name, the information is easily isolated and identified. Taking its name from the way paper-based information systems are named, each group of data is called a “file”. The structure and logic rules used to manage the groups of information and their names is called a “file system”.
a Filesystem consist of one more harddrives that are aligned store the volumes and files. a filessystem can have properties like compression, encryption or high availability using redundant arrays.